The Holy Eucharist has several names: Breaking of the Bread, Memorial of the Lord's Passion and Resurrection, the Holy Sacrafice, the Holy and Divine Blessed Sacrament, Holy Communion, and Holy Mass.
Christ instituted by the Holy Eucharist at the Last Supper. The Holy Eucharist is a sacramental sacrifice: of thanksgiving and praise; of Christ's death on the cross and resurrection from the dead; and of Christ's presence.
Christ is truly, really, and substantially present in the Holy Eucharist.
Non-Christians and Christians not fully united with the Church cannot receive the Eucharist. [See Catholic Answers explanation.]
The essential rite of the Eucharist is the consecration of the unleavened bread and wine which is accomplished by the priest when he says the words: "This is my body which will be given up for you" over the bread and "This is the cup of my blood, the blood of the new and everlasting convenant. It will be shed for you and for all so that sins may be forgiven" over the wine.
The changing of the bread and the wine into the Body and Blood of Christ is known as transubstantiation.
[From Outlines of the Catholic Faith: Teachings, Beliefs, Practices, Prayers, The Leaflet Missal Company, St. Paul, MN, 2011.]
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